Christians often encounter people who doubt the existence of God. While most atheists & agnostics are non-confrontational, there is a vocal minority who are obnoxious, aggressive, and downright mean. When you are ridiculed, do you back down, or do you eagerly defend your faith?
Below are 10 arguments for the existence of God. They specifically argue in favor of Christian theism. I did my best to summarize each argument as concisely as possible, even though each evidence merits its own volume. The explanation of each argument is by no means comprehensive. I recommend that you use this list as a blueprint for further personal research.
1. The Cosmological Argument. This is the most fundamental and perhaps the strongest argument in favor of God. It states that the Universe/Cosmos exists and is real (Who can deny this point?). How did it get here? Why something rather than nothing? Since it is real, how did it come into existence? The Law of Cause and Effect states that every material effect (i.e. the Universe) is contingent (something had to cause the Universe to exist). Atheists/Agnostics respond to the Cosmological Argument by saying, “The Cosmos just is.” However, they make this claim in opposition to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, which, because usable energy is running out, demonstrates that the Cosmos is finite. It must have had a cause/beginning. Theists logically say, “God is the cause (Creator) of the Cosmos.” A Divine, Supernatural, Infinite Being is the only rational explanation for the existence of the Universe. God is the uncaused cause.
2. The Teleological Argument. Nature exhibits obvious signs of design, and a design necessitates a designer. Just as the various systems in an automobile were designed, the Universe’s design demands a Designer. The field of biomimicry is a strong indicator of a Divine Designer. Atheists/agnostics contend that the design of the Cosmos “just happened.” Theists say a design necessitates a Designer. It is irrational to believe that something can design itself into further complexity; there is no evidence to warrant such a conclusion.
3. The Moral Argument. This is one of my favorite observations. I find it fascinating that every human being has some sort of innate moral compass. For example, everyone (unless they are conditioned to think otherwise), regardless of race and background, knows that the rape and murder of a 3-year-old girl is horrible, even if they have never met the victim. Why does mankind have a sense of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’? Is one to say that morality is a result of chemical reactions in the brain, fine-tuned over supposedly millions/billions of years of evolution? How can love and hate, guilt and remorse, gratitude and jealousy, kindness and faithfulness, &c, be explained with ‘survival of the fittest’? Logic tells us that a Creator or Moral Lawgiver was required for this intrinsic morality to be implanted into the human psyche.
4. The Transcendental Argument. This argument states that logical absolutes exist, independent of nature, space, and time. If the Universe were to disappear, logical absolutes would still exist. Logical absolutes are also not a product of the human mind, because all human minds are different. Since logical absolutes are always true and are not dependent upon human minds, there must be a transcendent Mind authoring them. This argument is valid because God Himself claims to be Truth (cf. Deut. 32:4; John 14:6; 17:17; &c). Indeed, God is Truth; it is His very identity. Without Him, reasoning & knowledge would be relative and self-contradictory.
5. The Phenominal Argument. While subjective, it raises an interesting point. Why does every culture have some sort of religion(s)? Where did they come from? The best explanation is that God placed within the heart of every man a God-shaped void that mankind naturally attempts to fill with religion. The Bible seems to make this argument (cf. Acts 17:26-27).
6. The Bible’s Scientific Foreknowledge Argument. The Bible, a compilation of 66 books, makes the claim to be from God. The oldest books are proven to have been written over 3,000 years ago. Despite its age, the various human authors of the Bible seemed to have knowledge about the Cosmos that had yet to be discovered by science. For example, (1) the earth is suspended (Job 26:7), (2) mountains and canyons exist in the sea (2 Sam. 22:16), (3) springs and fountains exist in the sea (Gen. 7:11; 8:2; Prov. 8:28), (4) the existence of ocean currents (Psa. 8:8), (5) the hydrologic cycle (Job 26:8; 36:27-38; Psa. 135:7), (6) facts about the human bloodstream (Lev. 17:11), and (7) the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (Psa. 102:25-26; Rom. 8:18-23; Heb. 1:10-12). How did the authors of the Bible know these things without Divine inspiration (cf. 2 Tim. 3:16-17)?
7. The Unity of the Bible Argument. If written over a period of 1,600 years by at least 40 different authors, one would expect there to be at least a few contradictions and inescapable discrepancies throughout the 66 books of the Bible. Yet critics cannot find even one! The only reasonable explanation is that the authors were directed by an omniscient and omnipresent God. Wayne Jackson has a good article about alleged Biblical contradictions, and Eric Lyons has done a thorough job addressing individual allegations in his books, “Anvil Rings: Answers to Alleged Bible Discrepancies”, Volume I & Volume 2. In addition to these resources, Apologetics Press has a list of alleged Bible discrepancies, categorized by book of the Bible, on their website.
8. The Anthropic Principle. Put simply, for our conscious human life to exist on earth, there must be extraordinary precision to our micro and macro environment. If the earth were any older or younger, closer to or further from the Sun, had different levels of carbon dioxide or oxygen in our atmosphere, had any more or less water, had a larger or smaller moon, &c (you get the point), life as we know it would be impossible for earth to support. The chances of these conditions happening at random, especially compared with the chances of our human design, are unfathomable. God designed the Universe intentionally (cf. Gen. 1:1), making it perfect for mankind.
9. The Image Of God Argument. According to Christian Theism, God made the Universe and man to dwell on the earth. God saw everything that He made and recognized that “it was very good” (Gen. 1:31). He also created man to be uniquely in His image (Gen. 1:27). Since we are made in the image of God, we can look at the world and imagine ways to make it better. We can create things to enhance the experience of our lives. We can even use our consciousness to reflect upon the state of our world. What animals are capable of this? Though Agnostics/atheists would be reluctant to give this argument any credence, I believe it raises some legitimate questions.
10. The Consciousness Argument. Human consciousness, specifically the connection between the mind and the brain, continues to baffle scientists. The more we discover, the more we realize we don’t know. For example, the research of Dr. John Eccles, who was awarded the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries in neurology, gave compelling evidence that human consciousness is more than just brain activity (Apologetics Press has several pages dedicated to discussing the findings of Dr. Eccles in, The Case for the Existence of God). Human consciousness is a wonder, and can only be satisfactorily explained in light of the reality of a Divine God. In addition, the question should be asked, “How are we capable of contemplating our consciousness and the existence of God?” Indeed, if mankind simply evolved, rather than being created with a conscious spirit, how can this be logically explained?
Many thanks to Caleb Colley for his help in this post.
Your comments are welcome and encouraged, even if they are in disagreement. However, please keep your comments relevant to the article. For my full comment policy, click here.
Do you have a good argument for the existence of God?